Romans – Background and Outline
Authorship: Paul, a servant of Christ Jesus, called to be an apostle, set apart for the gospel of God
Date: Acts 19 v21, Ad 55-57, from Corinth
Recipients: A church Paul had not been to, in a major world city, with a very diverse racial and theological makeup
Chapter 1v16: I am not ashamed of the gospel because it is the power of God for the salvation of everyone who believes
Chapter 2v 1:You therefore have no excuse, you who pass judgement on someone else, for at whatever point you judge the other, you are condemning yourself because you who pass judgement do the same thing
Chapter 3v21: But now a righteousness from God, apart from the law, has been made known to which the Law and the Prophets testify. This righteousness from God comes through faith in Jesus Christ to all who believe.
Chapter 4v25: He was delivered over to death for our sins and raised to life for our justification.
Chapter 5v1: Therefore since we have been justified through faith, we have peace with God through our Lord Jesus Christ.
Chapter6v5: If we have been united with him like this in death, we will certainly be united with him in his resurrection.
Chapter7v19: For what I do is not the good I want to do; no, the evil I do not want to do – this I keep doing.
Chapter8v31: If God is for us, who can be against us? He who did not spare his own Son, but gave him up for all of us all – how will he not, along with him, graciously give us all things?
Chapter9v 3. For I could wish that I myself were cursed and cut off from Christ for the sake of my brothers, those of my own race, the people of Israel.
Chapter 10v12. For there is no difference between Jew and gentile – the same Lord is Lord of all and richly blesses all who call on him.
Chpater 11v33 Oh the depth of the riches of the wisdom and knowledge of God. How unsearchable his judgements and his paths beyond tracing out.
Chapter 12v1-2 Therefore I urge you in view of God’s mercy, to offer your bodies as living sacrifices, holy and pleasing to God-this is your spiritual act of worship. Do not conform any longer to the pattern of this world but be transformed by the renewing of your mind. Then you will be able to test and approve what God’s will is – his good, pleasing and perfect will
Structure: (chaps 1-11)
Chap1 v1-15 – Preliminary greetings and general introduction: the Gospel of God
Chap1v16 – Chapter4 – The Gospel message and justification by faith. Righteousness from God through Christ
Chap1v18 and Chap2 – Gentiles and Jews need it – everyone needs it
Chap3v1-20 – the calling of the Jewish people
Chap3 v21-31 – Justification by faith alone, consistent with God’s character
Chap4 – It has always been faith not law
Chap5-8: The absolute certainty, finality, security and fullness of the salvation outlined in 1-4
Chap 5 v1-10: Summary
v11-end – joined to Christ
Chap 6 : the real problems of continuing sin – dead to sin, alive in Christ
Chap 7: the real problems of continuing sin – freedom from the law
Chap 8: No condemnation, life in the Spirit
The work of the Holy Spirit in renewing our minds and bodies, helping our fight againt sin, bringing assurance and adoption, helping us in prayer and bringing complete security
Chapters 9-11: God’s purposes for Israel
Chaps 1v18-Chap3v20 – The wrath of God
Chaps 3v21-Chaps 8v39 – The grace of God
Chaps 9-11- The plan of God
Chap 12-16 – the will of God
Christian leaders whose lives were turned upside down when God spoke to them through the book of Romans:
Augustine, the great Church Father and founder of Western theology
Martin Luther, architect of the reformation,
John Wesley, the English revivalist
Evan Roberts the Welsh revivalist,
Karl Barth, great theologian who led the charge against watered down liberal theology in the 20th century
David Watson – early founder Anglican renewal, NW HTB
Martin Luther quote:
This epistle is really the chief part of the New Testament and the very purest gospel, and is worthy that not only every Christian should know it word for word, by heart, but occupy himself with it every day `as the daily bread of the sould. It can never be read or pondered too much, and the more it is dealt with, the more precious it becomes and the better it tastes.
Simon Ponsonby quotes: (from God is For U s)
What can we conclude? Romans is a book which if prayerfully and obediently engaged with, can change lives, churches, nations – and even the course of history few of us are going to go to study theology at college…Such academic study is no guarantee that you will know any more about God or look any more like God. But I guarantee you this, if you master Paul’s epistle to the Romans, and its truths masters you; if you pray and study and apply your way through it; then you will not only know more biblical theology than most ministers of religion, you will bear more fruit, such that you can freely sing with the psalmist, “I have more understanding than all my teachers.”
FF Bruce quote:
There is no saying what may happen when ordinary people begin to study the book of Romans
12v1…therefore…chaps 1-11…gospel…not just entry ticket…power…peace…to a church - context
Transform: Augustine, Luther, Wesley. Luther memorizing…monthly reading